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What are Arrays in TypeScript?

In this blog post, we will be discussing arrays in TypeScript. If you're new to programming or TypeScript, don't worry – we'll explain everything in detail, and by the end of this post, you'll have a solid understanding of arrays and how to use them effectively in TypeScript.

What are Arrays?

An array can be thought of as a list or collection of items. Imagine you have a shopping list – a list containing items you need to buy from the grocery store. Instead of writing each item on separate pieces of paper, you write them all on a single sheet. This makes it easier to keep track of what you need to buy and ensures you don't lose any of the items.

Similarly, in programming, we often need to keep track of multiple pieces of data. Instead of using separate variables for each piece of data, we can store them all in a single array. An array can hold multiple values of the same type, and we can access each value by its index (position) in the array.

Why are Arrays Useful?

Using arrays in our programs can help us in many ways:

  1. Simplifies code by allowing us to store and manage multiple related items in one place.
  2. Makes it easy to perform operations on all items in the array at once.
  3. Can be used to store and manipulate data in a structured manner.

Now that we know what arrays are and why they are useful, let's dive into TypeScript and learn about arrays in depth.

Arrays in TypeScript

In TypeScript, we can create an array by specifying the type of the elements followed by square brackets []. Here's an example of an array of number type:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

In this example, we've created an array of numbers containing the values 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. We can also create an empty array by simply omitting the values:

let emptyNumbers: number[] = [];

We can also use the Array type followed by angle brackets <> and the element type. Here's the same example as before but using the Array type:

let numbers: Array<number> = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

Both of these ways to create arrays in TypeScript are equivalent, and you can use whichever one you prefer or whichever one makes your code more readable.

Accessing Array Elements

To access an element in an array, we use the index of the element, which is its position in the array. The index starts from 0, so the first element is at index 0, the second at index 1, and so on. We use square brackets [] to specify the index, like this:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

console.log(numbers[0]); // Output: 1
console.log(numbers[1]); // Output: 2
console.log(numbers[4]); // Output: 5

If we try to access an index that does not exist in the array, TypeScript will return undefined:

console.log(numbers[5]); // Output: undefined

Keep in mind that accessing an out-of-bound index will not cause an error in TypeScript, but it might lead to unexpected behavior in your program.

Modifying Array Elements

We can also modify the elements in an array by assigning a new value to a specific index:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

numbers[0] = 10;
numbers[1] = 20;

console.log(numbers); // Output: [10, 20, 3, 4, 5]

Array Length

We can find the number of elements in an array using the length property:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

console.log(numbers.length); // Output: 5

This can be useful when we want to loop through all the elements in the array or perform some operation on each element.

Adding and Removing Elements

We can add new elements to the end of an array using the push method:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

numbers.push(7, 8);

console.log(numbers); // Output: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]

The push method can also add multiple elements at once, as shown in the example above.

To remove the last element from an array, we can use the pop method:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

let lastNumber = numbers.pop();

console.log(lastNumber); // Output: 5
console.log(numbers);    // Output: [1, 2, 3, 4]

The pop method returns the removed element, which can be useful if we need to use the removed value in our program.

Looping Through an Array

We can use different types of loops to iterate through the elements in an array. Here's an example using a for loop:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

for (let i = 0; i < numbers.length; i++) {

We can also use the for...of loop, which is more concise and easier to read:

let numbers: number[] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

for (let number of numbers) {

Both of these loops will output the same result:


Arrays of Other Types

We can create arrays of other types too, like strings, booleans, or even custom types. Here are some examples:

let strings: string[] = ["Hello", "TypeScript", "World"];
let booleans: boolean[] = [true, false, true, true];

// Custom type
class Person {
  constructor(public name: string, public age: number) {}

let people: Person[] = [
  new Person("Alice", 30),
  new Person("Bob", 25),
  new Person("Charlie", 35),


Arrays are an essential part of programming and are used to store and manage multiple related items in one place. In TypeScript, we can create arrays by specifying the type of the elements followed by square brackets [] or by using the Array type. We can access, modify, add, and remove elements in the array, as well as loop through the elements using different types of loops.

By understanding and using arrays effectively in TypeScript, you can write more organized, efficient, and cleaner code. Now you're ready to start using arrays in your TypeScript projects and take your programming skills to the next level.