# What are Operators in Ruby?

In this blog post, we will dive into the world of operators in Ruby. As a beginner programmer, you might have come across the term "operator" and wondered what it means. Don't worry; we'll cover everything you need to know about operators in Ruby, including what they are, why they are essential, and how to use them effectively in your code. We'll also provide plenty of code examples to help you understand the concepts better.

## What are Operators?

In simple terms, operators are symbols that perform specific actions on values, variables, or expressions in programming languages. Think of them as the "verbs" of programming, as they dictate what actions take place between the different parts of your code.

For example, when you want to add two numbers together, you use the "+" operator, like so:

``````result = 5 + 10
``````

Here, the "+" operator is performing the action of addition between the numbers 5 and 10 and storing the result in the variable called "result."

Ruby has various types of operators, and understanding how they work is crucial for writing clean and efficient code. In this blog, we'll cover the following types of operators:

1. Arithmetic Operators
2. Comparison Operators
3. Logical Operators
4. Bitwise Operators
5. Assignment Operators

## 1. Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators are used for performing basic mathematical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Here is a list of arithmetic operators in Ruby:

• Addition (`+`)
• Subtraction (`-`)
• Multiplication (`*`)
• Division (`/`)
• Modulus (`%`)
• Exponentiation (`**`)

Let's see some code examples of using arithmetic operators in Ruby:

``````a = 10
b = 5

addition = a + b        # 15
subtraction = a - b     # 5
multiplication = a * b  # 50
division = a / b        # 2
modulus = a % b         # 0
exponentiation = a ** b # 100000
``````

## 2. Comparison Operators

Comparison operators are used to compare two values or expressions and return true or false based on the comparison. These operators are essential for making decisions and controlling the flow of your program. Here is a list of comparison operators in Ruby:

• Equal to (`==`)
• Not equal to (`!=`)
• Greater than (`>`)
• Less than (`<`)
• Greater than or equal to (`>=`)
• Less than or equal to (`<=`)
• Spaceship operator (`<=>`)

Let's see some code examples of using comparison operators in Ruby:

``````x = 10
y = 20

equal_to = (x == y)       # false
not_equal_to = (x != y)   # true
greater_than = (x > y)    # false
less_than = (x < y)       # true
greater_than_or_equal_to = (x >= y) # false
less_than_or_equal_to = (x <= y)    # true

# The spaceship operator returns -1 if the left operand is less than the right operand,
# 0 if both operands are equal, and 1 if the left operand is greater than the right operand.
spaceship_operator = (x <=> y) # -1
``````

## 3. Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine two or more conditions or expressions and return a boolean value (true or false) based on the evaluation. These operators are essential for implementing complex conditions in your code. Here is a list of logical operators in Ruby:

• AND (`&&`)
• OR (`||`)
• NOT (`!`)

Let's see some code examples of using logical operators in Ruby:

``````age = 25
income = 50000

# Both conditions must be true for the whole expression to be true
is_adult_and_employed = (age >= 18) && (income >= 30000) # true

# Only one of the conditions needs to be true for the whole expression to be true
is_adult_or_employed = (age >= 18) || (income >= 30000) # true

# Reverses the truth value of the given condition
is_not_adult = !(age >= 18) # false
``````

## 4. Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators perform operations at the bit level, i.e., they operate on the binary representation of numbers. These operators are used for low-level programming tasks, such as manipulating individual bits in a value. Here is a list of bitwise operators in Ruby:

• Bitwise AND (`&`)
• Bitwise OR (`|`)
• Bitwise XOR (`^`)
• Bitwise NOT (`~`)
• Left Shift (`<<`)
• Right Shift (`>>`)

Let's see some code examples of using bitwise operators in Ruby:

``````m = 5   # binary: 0101
n = 3   # binary: 0011

bitwise_and = m & n # 1 (binary: 0001)
bitwise_or = m | n  # 7 (binary: 0111)
bitwise_xor = m ^ n # 6 (binary: 0110)
bitwise_not = ~m    # -6 (binary: 1010)

left_shift = m << 1 # 10 (binary: 1010)
right_shift = m >> 1 # 2 (binary: 0010)
``````

## 5. Assignment Operators

Assignment operators are used to assign a value to a variable or to perform an operation and assign the result to the same variable. Here is a list of assignment operators in Ruby:

• Assign (`=`)
• Add and assign (`+=`)
• Subtract and assign (`-=`)
• Multiply and assign (`*=`)
• Divide and assign (`/=`)
• Modulus and assign (`%=`)
• Exponentiate and assign (`**=`)
• Bitwise AND and assign (`&=`)
• Bitwise OR and assign (`|=`)
• Bitwise XOR and assign (`^=`)
• Left shift and assign (`<<=`)
• Right shift and assign (`>>=`)

Let's see some code examples of using assignment operators in Ruby:

``````number = 10     # Assigns 10 to the variable 'number'

number += 5     # Adds 5 to the variable 'number' and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number + 5)
number -= 3     # Subtracts 3 from the variable 'number' and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number - 3)
number *= 2     # Multiplies the variable 'number' by 2 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number * 2)
number /= 4     # Divides the variable 'number' by 4 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number / 4)
number %= 3     # Calculates the modulus of the variable 'number' by 3 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number % 3)
number **= 2    # Raises the variable 'number' to the power of 2 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number ** 2)

number &= 3     # Bitwise ANDs the variable 'number' with 3 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number & 3)
number |= 5     # Bitwise ORs the variable 'number' with 5 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number | 5)
number ^= 2     # Bitwise XORs the variable 'number' with 2 and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number ^ 2)
number <<= 1    # Left shifts the variable 'number' by 1 bit and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number << 1)
number >>= 1    # Right shifts the variable 'number' by 1 bit and assigns the result to 'number' (number = number >> 1)
``````

## Conclusion

In this blog post, we discussed operators in Ruby, including what they are, their importance, and how to use them effectively in your code. We covered arithmetic, comparison, logical, bitwise, and assignment operators, along with code examples to help you understand each type better.

Mastering operators is essential for writing clean, efficient, and functional code in Ruby. As you continue learning programming, try to practice using these operators in your projects and exercises to become more comfortable with their use and application. Happy coding!

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